I was looking up some old data, and ran across this TSEAC meeting back on FEBRUARY 12, 2004. I thought some might like to read over, there's some interesting comments here, and then a follow up of sorts to date on the topic. ...
kind regards, terry
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
CENTER FOR BIOLOGICS EVALUATION AND RESEARCH
+ + + + +
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES ADVISORY
FEBRUARY 12, 2004
This transcript has not been edited
Or corrected, but appears as received
From the commerical transcribing
Service. Accordingly, the Food and
Drug Administration makes no
Representation as to its accuracy.
DR. GAMBETTI: Yes, much more MM. I just wanted to point out that actually it looks like the differences that are still conspicuous between variant CJD and sporadic CJD seem to kind of decrease, after a report from Switzerland, in which I'm sure you know, the scrapie prion protein was found in the spleen and muscle of about 20 to 30 percent of the cases with sporadic CJD, indicating that there must be, sometime during the course of the disease or during the entire course of the disease, some scrapie prion protein in the blood also of sporadic CJD patients, or at least a portion of sporadic CJD patients.
So in summary for the entire presentation here, from the animal models of blood-borne infectivity, I think we can say that we've had unequivocal demonstrations of blood-borne infectivity in rodents, sheep, and possibly now in monkeys. We've had diverse strains of agent that have been looked at, and this effect has been seen with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the Fukuoka strain, variant CJD ?- this is Larisa Cervenakova's work ?- BSE, our work, and scrapie.
We've seen it in natural TSE infections, as well as experimental infections, and this is the Institute for Animal Health work with the sheep transfusions.
So if we take the presumption, and the FDA has just told us that they will presume that this was a transfusion transmission, then it fills in most of the missing gaps in this story. There can be TSE infectivity in human blood. It is present preclinically, and it is transmissible by transfusion. It may even have a virulence greater than might be expected from the incubation time in rodents, based on the incubation time in this particular case.
The only thing that's inconsistent with this story, and it is a major inconsistency, is why we haven't seen transfusion transmissions from classical cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. That has been discussed by a number of people already today. I can't really add much to that. Is it that we?re missing them, our surveillance isn't right? Is there something really truly different? We just don't know.
DR. BROWN: Thank you, Chairman Priola. I feel a little bit like I'm coming home, maybe for the last time, but it's a nice feeling.
I was asked by David Asher to present the results of the study which several years ago was undertaken by us with the funding of the Baxter Pharmaceutical Company, and it has henceforth become known as the Baxter study.
Before I do that, assuming I have my full complement of 15 minutes and I'm not down to six and a half, I wanted just to make a comment or two about one or two of the interesting questions that have been raised in the course of the morning.
The difficulty of proving that sporadic CJD could be transfusion-linked I think is probably only going to be solved by exactly the reverse of the situation that is so compelling as evidence for variant CJD transmission; and that is, instead of having a young, typical variant CJD donating blood to a person who is elderly -- when I say "elderly,? that's my age -- you're going to have to have a classic sporadic elderly patient transmitting blood to an unusually young patient, and then you'll have the same kind of certainty which is not totally certain, but you'll have some confidence that that has happened. And that's not going to be easy to find.
I was asked by David -- and with the kind permission of Corinne Lasmezas ? to also give you a summary of her studies, the studies of her group, directed by her now on what the French are up to with respect to primates.
But the first thing is our own study, and as I mentioned, it's a Baxter primate study, and those are the major participants. And the goal was twofold, and here is the first one: to see whether CJD, either sporadic or familial -- actually it turns out to be the familial CJD is incorrect. It really should be the Fukuoka strain of Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease. So it's really GSS instead of familial CJD -- when passaged through chimps into squirrel monkeys using purified blood components, very pure blood components.
So this addresses the question that was raised just recently about whether or not red cell infectivity that's been found in rodents is really in the red cells or is it contaminated.
We prepared these samples with exquisite care, and they are ultra-ultra-ultra purified. There's virtually no contamination of any of the components that we looked at ? platelets, red cells, plasma, white cells -- with any other component.
These are a sort of new set of slides, and what I've tried to do is make them less complicated and more clear, but I'm afraid I haven't included the build. So you'll just have to try and follow what I explain with this little red pointer.
There were three initial patients. Two of them had sporadic CJD. One of them had Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Brain tissue from each individual patient was inoculated intracerebrally into a pair of chimpanzees. All right?
From those chimps, either plasma or ultra purified -- in fact, everything is ultra-purified. I'll just talk about purified plasma, purified white cells -- were inoculated intracerebrally and intravenously to get the maximum amount of infective load into a pair of squirrel monkeys.
The same thing was done for each of these three sets. This monkey died from non-CJD causes at 34 months post inoculation.
Let me go back for a second. I didn't point out the fact that these were not sacrificed at this point. These chimpanzees were apheresed at 27 weeks when they were still asymptomatic. In this instance, we apheresed them terminally when they were symptomatic.
And before I forget, I want to mention just a little sidelight of this. Chimpanzees in our experience -- and I think we may be the only people that have ever inoculated chimpanzees, and that's no longer a possibility, so this was 20, 30 years ago -- the shortest incubation period of any chimpanzee that we have ever seen with direct intracerebral inoculation is 13 months.
So we chose 27 weeks, which is about seven months, and incidentally typically the incubation period is more like 16 or 18 months. The shortest was 13 months. We chose the 27th week, which is about six and a half months, thinking that this would be about halfway through the incubation period, which we wanted to check for the presence or absence of infectivity.
But within four weeks after the apheresis, which was conducted under general anesthesia for three or four hours apiece, every single one of the six chimpanzees became symptomatic. That is another experiment that I would love to conclude, perhaps because this is simply not heard of, and it very much smells like we triggered clinical illness. We didn't trigger the disease, but it certainly looks like we triggered symptomatic disease at a point that was much earlier than one would have possibly expected.
Maybe it will never be done because it would probably open the floodgates of litigation. There's no end of little things that you can find out from CJD patients after the fact. For example, the neighbor's dog comes over, barks at a patient, makes him fall down, and three weeks later he gets CJD. So you have a lawsuit against the neighbor.
I mean, this is not an unheard of matter, but I do think that physical stress in the form of anesthesia and four hours of whatever goes on with anesthesia, low blood pressure, sometimes a little hypoxemia looks like it's a bad thing.
So here we have the 31st week. All of the chimps are symptomatic, and here what we did was in order to make the most use of the fewest monkeys, which is always a problem in primate research, we took these same three patients and these six chimps. Only now we pooled these components; that is to say, we pooled the plasma from all six chimps. We pooled ultra-purified white cells from all six chimps because here we wanted to see whether or not we could distinguish a difference between intracerebral route of infection and intravenous route of infection.
With respect to platelets and red blood cells, we did not follow that. We inoculated both intracerebral and intravenously, as we had done earlier because nobody has any information on whether or not platelets and red cells are infectious, and so we wanted again to get the maximum.
This is an IV versus IC goal. This one, again, is just getting the maximum load in to see whether there is, in fact, any infectivity in pure platelets, in pure red cells.
And of all of the above, the only transmission of disease related to the inoculation was in a squirrel monkey that received pure leukocytes from the presymptomatic apheresis. So that goes some way to address the question as to whether or not it's a matter of contamination. To date the red cells have not been -- the monkeys that receive red cells have not been observed for more than a year because that was a later experiment.
So we still can't say about red cells, but we're about four and a half years down the road now, and we have a single transmission from purified leukocytes, nothing from plasma and nothing from platelets.
That was the first part of the experiment. The second part was undertaken with the cooperation of Bob Will and others supplying material to us. These were a couple of human, sporadic cases of CJD and three variant cases of CJD from which we obtained buffy coat and plasma separated in a normal way. That is, these are not purified components.
The two cases of sporadic CJD, the plasma was pooled from both patients. The buffy coat was pooled from both patients, and then inoculated intracerebrally and intravenously into three squirrel monkeys each. This is a non-CJD death five years after inoculation. The other animals are still alive.
For variant CJD we decided not to pool. It was more important to eliminate the possibility that there was just a little bit of infectivity in one patient that would have been diluted to extinction, if you like, by mixing them if it were to so occur with two patients, for example, who did not have infectivity. So each one of these was done individually, but the principle was the same: plasma and buffy coat for each patient was inoculated into either two or three squirrel monkeys. This is, again, a non-CJD related death.
In addition to that, we inoculated rain as a positive control from the two sporadic disease cases of human -- from the two human sporadic cases at ten to the minus one and ten to the minus three dilutions. We have done this many, many times in the past with other sporadic patients. So we knew what to expect, and we got exactly what we did expect, namely, after an incubation period not quite two years, all four monkeys developed disease at this dilution and at the minus three dilution, not a whole lot of difference between the two.
Now, these are the crucial monkeys because each one of these monkeys every three to four months was bled and the blood transfused into a new healthy monkey, but the same monkey all the time. So this monkey, for example, would have received in the course of 21 months about six different transfusions of blood from this monkey into this monkey, similarly with this pair, this pair, and this pair. So you can call these buddies. This is sort of the term that was used. These monkeys are still alive.
In the same way, the three human variant CJD specimens, brain, were inoculated into four monkeys, and again, each one of these monkeys has been repeatedly bled at three to four month intervals and that blood transfused into a squirrel monkey, the same one each time. Ideally we would love to have taken bleeding at three months and inoculated a monkey and then let him go, watch him, and then done the same thing at six months. It would have increased the number of monkeys eightfold and just unacceptably expensive. So we did the best we could.
That, again, is a non-CJD death, as is this.
This was of interest mainly to show that the titer of infectivity in brain from variant CJD is just about the same as it from sporadic. We didn't do a minus five and a minus seven in sporadic because we have an enormous experience already with sporadic disease in squirrel monkeys, and we know that this is exactly what happens. It disappears at about ten to the minus five. So the brain titer in monkeys receiving human vCJD is identical to the brain titer in monkeys that have been inoculated with sporadic CJD.
That's the experiment. All of the monkeys in aqua are still alive. They are approaching a five-year observation period, and I think the termination of this experiment will now need to be discussed very seriously in view of a probable six-year incubation period in the U.K. case. The original plan was to terminate the experiment after five years of observation with the understanding that ideally you would keep these animals for their entire life span, which is what we used to do when had unlimited space, money, and facilities. We can't do that anymore.
It's not cheap, but I think in view of the U.K. case, it will be very important to think very seriously about allowing at least these buddies and the buddies from the sporadic CJD to go on for several more years because although you might think that the U.K. case has made experimental work redundant, in point of fact, anything that bears on the risk of this disease in humans is worthwhile knowing, and one of the things we don't know is frequency of infection. We don't know whether this case in the U.K. is going to be unique and never happen again or whether all 13 or 14 patients have received blood components are ultimately going to die. Let's hope not.
The French primate study is primarily directed now by Corinne Lasmezas. As you know, the late Dominique Dromont was the original, originally initiated this work, and they have very active primate laboratory in France, and I'm only going to show two very simple slides to summarize what they did.
The first one is simply to show you the basis of their statement that the IV route of infection looks to be pretty efficient because we all know that the intracerebral route of infection is the most efficient, and if you look at this where they inoculated the same infective load either intracerebrally or intravenously, the incubation periods were not substantially different, which suggests but doesn't prove, but doesn't prove that the route of infection is pretty efficient.
Lower doses of brain material given IV did extend the incubation period and presumably it's because of the usual dose response phenomenon that you see in any infectious disease.
With a whopping dose of brain orally, the incubation period was even lower. Again, just one more example of inefficiency of the route of infection and the necessity to use more infective material to get transmissions.
And they also have blood inoculated IV which is on test, and the final slide or at least the penultimate slide shows you what they have on test and the time of observation, that taken human vCJD and like us inoculated buffy coat, they've also inoculated whole blood which we did not do.
So to a great extent their studies are complementary to ours and makes it all worthwhile.
We have about -- oh, I don't know -- a one to two-year lead time on the French, but they're still getting into pretty good observation periods. Here's three-plus years.
They have variant CJD adapted to the macaque. That is to say this one was passaged in macaque monkeys, the cynomolgus, and they did the same thing. Again, we're talking about a study here in which like ours there are no transmissions. I mean, we have that one transmission from leukocytes, and that's it.
Here is a BSE adapted to the macaque. Whole blood, and then they chose to inoculate leukodepleted whole blood, in both instances IV. Here they are out to five years without a transmission.
And then finally oral dosing of the macaque, which had been infected with -- which was infected with BSE, but a macaque passaged BSE, whole blood buffy coat and plasma, all by the IC route, and they're out to three years.
So with the single exception of the leukocyte transmission from our chimp that was inoculated with a sporadic case of CJD or -- excuse me -- with a GSS, Gerstmann-Straussler, in neither our study nor the French study, which are not yet completed have we yet seen a transmission.
And I will just close with a little cartoon that appeared in the Washington Post that I modified slightly lest you get too wound up with these questions of the risk from blood. This should be a "corrective."
DR. BROWN: Thanks.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Yes. Any questions for Dr. Brown? Dr. Linden.
DR. LINDEN: I just want to make sure I understand your study design correctly. When you mention the monkeys that have the IV and IC inoculations, the individual monkeys had both or --
DR. BROWN: Yes, yes, yes. That's exactly right.
DR. LINDEN: So an individual monkey had both of those as opposed to some monkeys had one and some had the other?
DR. BROWN: Correct, correct. Where IC and IV are put down together was IC plus IV into a given monkey.
DR. LINDEN: Into a given monkey. Okay.
And the IC inoculations, where were those given?
DR. BROWN: Right parietal cortex, Southern Alabama.
DR. BROWN: Oh, it can't be that clear. Yeah, here, Pierluigi.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Dr. Epstein.
DR. BROWN: Pierluigi always damns me with feint praise. He always says that's a very interesting study, but. I'm waiting for that, Pierluigi.
I think Jay Epstein --
DR. GAMBETTI: I will say that there's an interesting study and will say, but I just --
DR. GAMBETTI: -- I just point of review. You talk about a point of information. You say that -- you mention GSS, I guess, and the what, Fukuowa (phonetic) --
DR. BROWN: Yes, Fukuoka 1.
DR. GAMBETTI: Fukuowa, and is that from the 102, if I remember correctly, of the --
DR. BROWN: Yes, that is correct.
DR. GAMBETTI: Because that is the only one that also --
DR. BROWN: No, it's not 102. It's 101. It's the standard. It's a classical GSS. Oh, excuse me. You're right. One, oh, two is classical GSS. It's been so long since I've done genetics. You're right.
DR. GAMBETTI: Because that is the only one I know, I think, that I can remember that has both the seven kv fragment that is characteristic of GSS, but also the PrPsc 2730. So in a sense, it can be stretching a little bit compared to the sporadic CJD.
DR. BROWN: Yeah, I think that's right. That's why I want to be sure that I made you aware on the very first slide that that was not accurate, that it truly was GSS.
There's a GSS strain that has been adapted to mice, and it's a hot strain, and therefore, it may not be translatable to sporadic disease, correct. All we can say for sure is that it is a human TSE, and it is not variant. I think that's about it.
DR. GAMBETTI: I agree, but this is also not perhaps the best --
DR. BROWN: No, it is not the best. We understand --
DR. GAMBETTI: -- of GSS either.
DR. BROWN: Yeah. If we had to do it over again, we'd look around for a -- well, I don't know. We'd probably do it the same way because we have two sporadics already on test they haven't transmitted, and so you can take your pick of what you want to pay attention to.
DR. EPSTEIN: Yes, Paul. Could you just comment? If I understood you correctly, when you did the pooled apheresis plasma from the six chimps when they were symptomatic at 31 weeks, you also put leukocytes into squirrel monkeys in that case separately IV and IC, but in that instance you have not seen an infection come down in squirrel monkey, and the question is whether it's puzzling that you got transmission from the 27-week asymptomatic sampling, whereas you did not see transmission from the 31-week sampling in symptomatic animals.
DR. BROWN: Yes, I think there are two or three possible explanations, and I don't know if any of them are important. The pre-symptomatic animal was almost symptomatic as it turned out so that we were pretty close to the period at which symptoms would being, and whether you can, you know, make much money on saying one was incubation period and the other was symptomatic in this particular case because both bleedings were so close together. That's one possibility.
The other possibility is we're dealing with a very irregular phenomenon and you're not surprised at all by surprises, so to speak so that a single animal, you could see it almost anywhere.
The third is that we, in fact, did just what I suggested we didn't want to do for the preclinical, namely, by pooling we got under the threshold. See?
You can again take that for what it's worth. It is a possible explanation, and again, until we know what the levels of infectivity are and whether by pooling we get under the threshold of transmission, we simply cannot make pronouncements.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Dr. DeArmond.
DR. DeARMOND: Yeah, it was very interesting data, but the --
DR. BROWN: I just love it. Go ahead.
DR. DeARMOND: Two comments. The first one was that the GSS cases, as I remember from reading your publications -- I think Gibbs was involved with them -- when you transmitted the GSS into animals, into monkeys, perhaps I think it was chimps, the transmission was more typical of CJD rather than GSS. There were no amyloid plaques. It was vacuolar degeneration so that you may be transmitting a peculiar form, as I criticized once in Bali and then you jumped all over me about.
DR. BROWN: I may do it again.
DR. DeARMOND: Calling me a bigot and some other few things like that.
DR. BROWN: Surely not. I wouldn't have said that.
DR. DeARMOND: So there could be something strange about that particular --
DR. BROWN: Yeah. I think you and Pierluigi are on the same page here. This may be an unusual strain from a number of points of view.
DR. DeARMOND: The other question though has to do with species barrier because the data you're showing is kind of very reassuring to us that it's hard to transmit from blood, but the data from the sheep and from the hamsters and some of the work, I think, that has been done by others, that it's easy in some other animals to transmit, hamster to hamster, mouse to mouse.
Could you comment on the --
DR. BROWN: That's exactly why we went to primates. That's exactly it, because a primate is closer to a human than a mouse is, and that's just common sense.
And so to try and get a little closer to the human situation and not totally depend on rodents for transferrable data, that is why you would use a primate. Otherwise you wouldn't use them. They're too expensive and they cause grief to animal care study people and protocol makers and the whole thing.
Primate studies are a real pain.
DR. DeARMOND: But right now it's inconclusive and you need more time on it.
DR. BROWN: I believe that's true. I think if we cut it off at six years you could still say it was inconclusive, and cutting it off at all will be to some degree inconclusive, and that's just the way it is.
DR. DeARMOND: So what has to be done? Who do you have to convince, or who do we all have to convince to keep that going?
DR. BROWN: Thomas?
Without trying to be flip at all, the people that would be the first people to try to convince would be the funders of the original study. If that fails, and it might for purely practical reasons of finance, then we will have to look elsewhere because I really don't want to see those animals sacrificed, not those eight buddies. Those are crucial animals, and they don't cost a whole lot to maintain. You can maintain eight -- well, they cost a lot from my point of view, but 15 to $20,000 a year would keep them going year after year.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Dr. Johnson.
DR. JOHNSON: Yeah, Paul, I'm intrigued as you are by the shortening of the incubation period. Have you in all of the other years of handling these animals when they were transfused, when they were flown out to Louisiana at night -- a lot of the stressful things have happened to some of these chimps. Have you ever noticed that before or is this a new observation?
DR. BROWN: Brand new.
MR. JOHNSON: Brand new. Okay.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Bob, did you want to say something? Dr. Rohwer.
DR. ROHWER: The Frederick fire, wasn't that correlated with a lot of --
DR. BROWN: Not that I k now of, but you may --
DR. ROHWER: Well, that occurred shortly after I came to NIH, and what I remember is that there were a whole bunch of conversions that occurred within the few months following the fire. That was fire that occurred adjacent to the NINDS facility, but in order to protect it, they moved the monkeys out onto the tarmac because they weren't sure it wouldn't burn as well.
DR. BROWN: Well, if you're right, then it's not brand new, but I mean, I'm not sure how we'll ever know because if I call Carlton and ask him, I'm not sure but what I would trust the answer that he gives me, short of records.
You know, Carlot is a very enthusiastic person, and he might say, "Oh, yeah, my God, the whole floor died within three days," but I would want to verify that.
On the other hand, it may be verifiable. There possibly are records that are still extant.
DR. ROHWER: Actually I thought I heard the story from you.
DR. BROWN: You didn't because it's brand new for me. I mean, either that or I'm on the way
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Dr. Bracey.
DR. BRACEY: I was wondering if some of the variability in terms of the intravenous infection route may be related to intraspecies barriers, that is, the genetic differences, the way the cells, the white leukocytes are processed, whether or not microchimerism is established, et cetera.
DR. BROWN: I don't think that processing is at fault, but the question, the point that you raise is a very good one, and needless to say, we have material with which we can analyze genetically all of the animals, and should it turn out that we get, for example, -- I don't know -- a transmission in one variant monkey and no transmissions in another and a transmission in three sporadic monkeys, we will at that point genetically analyze every single animal that has been used in this study, but we wanted to wait until we could see what would be most useful to analyze.
but the material is there, and if need be, we'll do it.
CHAIRPERSON PRIOLA: Okay. Thank you very much, Dr. Brown.
I think we'll move on to the open public hearing section of the morning.
FC5.1.1 Transmission Results in Squirrel Monkeys Inoculated with Human sCJD, vCJD, and GSS Blood Specimens: the Baxter Study
Brown, P1; Gibson, S2; Williams, L3; Ironside, J4; Will, R4; Kreil, T5; Abee, C3 1Fondation Alliance BioSecure, France; 2University of South Alabama, USA; 3University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA; 4Western General Hospital, UK; 5Baxter BioSience, Austria
Background: Rodent and sheep models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) have documented blood infectivity in both the pre-clinical and clinical phases of disease. Results in a (presumably more appropriate) non-human primate model have not been reported. Objective: To determine if blood components (red cells, white cells, platelets, and plasma) from various forms of human TSE are infectious. Methods: Blood components were inoculated intra-cerebrally (0.1 ml) and intravenously (0.5 ml) into squirrel monkeys from 2 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (sCJD) and 3 patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Additional monkeys were inoculated with buffy coat or plasma samples from chimpanzees infected with either sCJD or Gerstmann-StrÃ¤ussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Animals were monitored for a period of 5 years, and all dying or sacrificed animals had post-mortem neuropathological examinations and Western blots to determine the presence or absence of the misfolded â€˜prionâ€™ protein (PrPTSE). Results: No transmissions occurred in any of the animals inoculated with blood components from patients with sporadic or variant CJD. All donor chimpanzees (sCJD and GSS) became symptomatic within 6 weeks of their pre-clinical phase plasmapheresis, several months earlier than the expected onset of illness. One monkey inoculated with purified leukocytes from a pre-clinical GSS chimpanzee developed disease after 36 months. Conclusion: No infectivity was found in small volumes of blood components from 4 patients with sporadic CJD and 3 patients with variant CJD.
***However, a single transmission from a chimpanzee-passaged strain of GSS shows that infectivity may be present in leukocytes, and the â€˜shockâ€™ of general anaesthesia and plasmspheresis appears to have triggered the onset of illness in pre-clinical donor chimpanzees.
FC5.1.2 Interim Transmission Results in Cynomolgus Macaques Inoculated with BSE and
vCJD Blood Specimens
Lasmezas, C1; Lescoutra, N2; Comoy, E2; Holznagel, E3; Loewer, J3; Motzkus, D4; Hunsmann, G4; Ingrosso, L5; Bierke, P6; Pocchiari, M5; Ironside, J7; Will, R7; Deslys, JP2 1Scripps Florida, Infectology, USA; 2CEA, France; 3PEI, Germany; 4DPZ, Germany; 5Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Italy; 6SMI, Sweden; 7CJD Surveillance Unit, UK
BSE and vCJD transmitted to cynomolgus macaques reproduce many features of human vCJD, including clinical symptoms, neuropathological hallmarks of vCJD, PrPres electrophoretical pattern and, most importantly, the wide distribution of infectivity in peripheral organs. The latter characteristic distinguishes vCJD from sCJD in both humans and cynomolgus macaques, and prompted us to use this non-human primate model for further investigations of vCJD and its risk for human health. The occurrence of four vCJD infections in humans transfused with blood from patients who later developed vCJD has raised concern about blood transfusion safety in countries with vCJD. In this collaborative European study, we investigated the infectivity of blood components and whole blood administered by intracerebral (ic) and intravenous (iv) routes. Buffy-coat and whole blood was inoculated by ic and iv route, respectively, from two vCJD patients and from two clinical vCJD-inoculated macaques. Transfusions were also performed from whole blood and blood leucodepleted according to hospital practice standards from two clinical BSE inoculated macaques. Blood infectivity during the preclinical phase is being examined in orally infected macaques. Whole blood was collected and transfused from one such animal two years after oral challenge, whereas buffy-coat and plasma from two animals at 2 and 4.5 years post-challenge, respectively, have been inoculated by the ic route. This is an ongoing study in which recipient animals continue to be observed at various times post-inoculation. So far, we have had one positive transmission in one animal transfused 65 months earlier with 40 ml of whole blood from a vCJD macaque (the characteristics of the disease in this animal will be shown in a separate poster by E. Comoy). This positive transmission reproduces transfusion transmission of vCJD in humans, with an incubation of 5.5 years compatible with incubation periods observed in humans.
TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES ADVISORY COMMITTEE
JUNE 12, 2009
REFERENCES SENT TO MEMBERS
Topic I: Modified FDA Risk Assessment for Potential Exposure to the Infectious Agent of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in U.S.–licensed Plasma-Derived Factor VIII
1. Clarke P et al. Projections of the future course of the primary vCJD epidemic in the UK: inclusion of subclinical infection and the possibility of wider genetic susceptibility. J. R. Soc. Interface 2005; 2: 19-31.
2. FDA Draft Guidance for Industry: Amendment (Donor Deferral for Transfusion in France Since 1980) to "Guidance for Industry: Revised Preventive Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) by Blood and Blood Products". August 2006.
3. FDA Guidance for Industry. Revised Preventive Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) by Blood and Blood Products. January 2002.
4. FDA Web Posting: Potential Risk of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) From Plasma-Derived Products.
5. FDA Draft Quantitative Risk Assessment of vCJD Risk Potentially Associated with the Use of Human Plasma-Derived Factor VIII Manufactured Under United States (US) License From Plasma Collected in the US. November 27, 2006.
Risk Assessment Appendix
6. Foster PR. Removal of TSE agents from blood products. Vox Sanguinis 2004; 87 (Suppl. 2): 7-10.
7. Hilton D et al. Prevalence of lymphoreticular prion protein accumulation in UK tissue samples. J Pathol 2004; 203: 733-739.
8. Lee DC et al. A direct relationship between the partitioning of the pathogenic prion protein and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity during the purification of plasma proteins. Transfusion Complications 2001; 41: 449-455.
9. UK HPA. vCJD Abnormal Prion Protein Found in a Patient with Haemophilia at Post Mortem. February 2009.
PRODUCT Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-1413-09 CODE Unit: 1689491 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Blood Bank of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, by facsimile on March 5, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood product, collected from a donor who was at risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), was distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 1 unit DISTRIBUTION NY
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells, Recall # B-1488-09; 2) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-1489-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: W126908247145 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Southeastern Community Blood Center, Tallahassee, FL, by fax on April 8, 2009 and follow-up letter on April 17, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION FL, Austria
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells Leukocytes Reduced Irradiated, Recall # B-1541-09; 2) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-1542-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: W044108019097 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Siouxland Community Blood Bank, Sioux City, IA, by e-mail and letter dated March 3, 2009 and follow-up letter on March 10, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION Austria, IA
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells, Recall # B-1545-09; 2) Fresh Frozen Plasma, Recall # B-1546-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: W089808202149 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Inova Health Care Services, Blood Donor Services, Sterling, VA, by letter dated January 9, 2009 and follow-up telephone call on January 23, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION VA
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR SEPTEMBER 2, 2009
PRODUCT Red Blood Cells Leukocytes Reduced. Recall # B-1148-09 CODE Unit: 3291680 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Florida's Blood Centers, Inc, Orlando, FL, by telephone on January 12, 2009 and by letter dated January 13, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood product, collected from a donor who was at risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), was distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 1 unit DISTRIBUTION FL
PRODUCT 1) Recovered Plasma. Recall # B-1151-09; 2) Red Blood Cells Leukocytes Reduced. Recall # B-1152-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: 6585642 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Carter BloodCare/ WE & Lela I Stewart Blood Center, Inc, Tyler, TX, by fax on April 23, 2007 and March 11, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION TX and Switzerland
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JULY 1, 2009
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes Reduced. Recall B-1180-09; 2) Recovered Plasma. Recall # B-1181-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: 27LT64128 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER ARC Greater Alleghenies, Johnstown, PA, by telephone or electronic notification on December 1, 2008 and by letter dated December 3, 2008. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor who may have been at risk for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION CA, WV
PRODUCT 1) Recovered Plasma. Recall # B-1214-09; 2) Red Blood Cells. Recall # B-1215-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: KS25920 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Inova Health Care Services, Blood Donor Services, Sterling, VA, by letter dated November 23, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION VA, NJ
PRODUCT Source Plasma. Recall # B-1206-09 CODE Units: 07YARF0702, 07YARE9866, 07YARE9175, 07YARE8806, 07YARE6013, 07YARE6743, 07YARE7284, 07YARE3054, 07YARE1421, 07YARE1044, 07YARE0168, 07YARD9701, 07YARD8977, 07YARD8152, 07YARD7695, 07YARD6945, 07YARD6722, 07YARD5923, 06YARE3812, 06YARE4248, 06YARE4943, 06YARE5522, 06YARE6898, 06YARE7196, 07YARA0218, 07YARA0575, 07YARA1157, 07YARA1574, 07YARA2145, 07YARA2571, 07YARA5682, 07YARA8317, 07YARA9272, 07YARA9637, 07YARB0583, 07YARB1028, 07YARB1861, 07YARB2231, 07YARB2855, 07YARB3489, 07YARB4656, 07YARB5193, 07YARB5849, 07YARB6358, 07YARB7036, 07YARB7618, 07YARB8311, 07YARB8853, 07YARB9492, 07YARC0024, 07YARC0639, 07YARC1138, 07YARC1799, 07YARC2236, 07YARC3313, 07YARC4218, 07YARC4928, 07YARC5294, 07YARC5924, 07YARC7298, 07YARC8991, 07YARC9252, 07YARD3794, 07YARD4519, 07YARD5590, 07YARF3027 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER BioLife Plasma Services LP, Fayetteville, AR, by fax on January 14, 2008. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 66 units DISTRIBUTION CA
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells. Recall # B-1250-09; 2) Fresh Frozen Plasma. Recall # B-1251-09 CODE 1) and 2) Unit: 4054709 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Wellmont Health System dba Marsh Regional Blood Center, Kingsport, TN, by letter dated October 4, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor who was at risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 2 units DISTRIBUTION TN
PRODUCT Source Plasma. Recall # B-1254-09 CODE Units: 363035924, 363035761, 363034642, 363034463, 363034153, 363033965, 363033670, 363033509, 363033093, 363032543, 363032383, 363032099, 363031873, 363031593, 363031321, 363031001, 363030738, 363030235, 363030057, 363029728, 363028978, 363028657, 363028438, 363028031, 363027863, 363027492, 363027314, 363026918, 363026688, 363026356, 363026123, 363025728, 363025483, 363025047, 363024873, 363024318, 363023960, 363023655, 363023279, 363022828, 363022612, 363020673, 363020392, 363021363, 363021144, 363019633, 363019419, 363018827, 363018647, 363016935, 363016561, 363016170, 363015723, 363014906, 363014413, 363014104, 363013235, 363012843, 363012402, 363011999, 363011601, 363011195, 363008854, 363008420, 363008054, 363007611, 363007268, 363006814, 363006486, 363006074, 363005753, 363005310, 363004961, 363004496, 363004188, 363003610, 363000147, I74029391, I74028830, I74028628, I74025361, I74024797, I74024560, I74024220, I74024002, I74023653, I74023404, I74023044, I74022854, I74022445, I74022288, I74021933, I74021763, I74021452, I74021274, I74020724, I74019586, I74025147, 363015212 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Talecris Plasma Resources Inc, Fort Worth, TX, by facsimile on March 13, 2007. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor who was at risk for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 99 units DISTRIBUTION NC
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JULY 22, 2009
PRODUCT 1) Red Blood Cells Leukocytes Reduced. Recall # B-1281-09; 2) Platelets Leukocytes Reduced. Recall # B-1282-09; 3) Recovered Plasma. Recall # B-1283-09 CODE 1) Units: 1974540, W044108025910; 2) Unit: W044108025910; 3) Units: W044108025910, 1974540 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Siouxland Community Blood Bank, Sioux City, IA, by letter and email on February 3, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete. REASON Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed. VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 5 units DISTRIBUTION Austria, IA
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JULY 29, 2009
Sunday, May 10, 2009
Meeting of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Committee On June 12, 2009 (Singeltary submission)
PDF]Freas, William TSS SUBMISSION
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat -
Page 1. J Freas, William From: Sent: To: Subject: Terry S. Singeltary
Sr. [firstname.lastname@example.org] Monday, January 08,200l 3:03 PM freas ...
Sent: Monday, July 27, 2009 10:31 PM
Subject: [CJDVoice] Re: [BSE-L] U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ?
FINALLY, GOT IT UPLOADED !
SEE THE VIDEO NOW AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BLOG BELOW ;
Subject: Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep... Date: Thu, 14 Sep 2000 18:19:06 -0700 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de
######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########
Greetings List Members,
More Dredful news, but predictable...
kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA
It is possible to transmit BSE to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection'
It is well known that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is caused by the same strain of agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. F Houston and colleagues report the preliminary findings of transfusing blood from 19 UK Cheviot sheep fed with 5 g BSE-affected cattle brain into Cheviot sheep from scrapie-free flock of New Zealand-derived animals. The investigators found BSE clinical signs and pathology in one recipient of blood taken from a BSE infected animal. Immunocytochemistry on tissues taken from the transfused sheep showed widespread PrPSC deposition throughout the brain and the periphery. This finding suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings could transmit infection to recipients of blood transfusions. In a Commentary, Paul Brown states that these observations are consistent with previous reports in experimentally infected rodents.
Research letters Volume 356, Number 9234 16 September 2000
Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep
Lancet 2000; 356: 999 - 1000 Download PDF (1 Mb)
F Houston, J D Foster, Angela Chong, N Hunter, C J Bostock
We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection. BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in human beings are caused by the same infectious agent, and the sheep-BSE experimental model has a similar pathogenesis to that of human vCJD. Although UK blood transfusions are leucodepleted--a possible protective measure against any risk from blood transmission--this report suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings may represent a risk of spread of vCJD infection among the human population of the UK.
The demonstration that the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is caused by the same agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle1 has raised concerns that blood from human beings in the symptom-free stages of vCJD could transmit infection to recipients of blood transfusions. There is no evidence that iatrogenic CJD has ever occurred as a result of the use of blood or blood products, but vCJD has a different pathogenesis and could present different risks. CJD is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) characterised by the deposition of an abnormal form of a host protein, PrPSc; the normal isoform (PrPC) is expressed in many body tissues. Available evidence, based on detection of infectivity in blood in rodent models, and absence of infectivity in naturally occurring TSEs, adds to the uncertainty in risk assessments of the safety of human blood. PrPSc has been reported in blood taken from preclinical TSE-infected sheep,2 but it does not follow that blood is infectious. Bioassays of human blood can only be carried out in non-human species, limiting the sensitivity of the test. One way of avoiding such a species barrier is to transfer blood by transfusion in an appropriate animal TSE model. BSE-infected sheep harbour infection in peripheral tissues3 and are thus similar to humans infected with vCJD.4 BSE infectivity in cattle does not have widespread tissue distribution.
We report preliminary data from a study involving blood taken from UK Cheviot sheep challenged orally with 5 g BSE-affected cattle brain and transfused into Cheviot sheep from a scrapie-free flock of New Zealand-derived animals (MAFF/SF flock). MAFF/SF sheep do not develop spontaneous TSE and the transfused animals are housed separately from other sheep. All sheep in the study have the PrP genotype AA136QQ171 which has the shortest incubation period of experimental BSE in sheep.5 19 transfusions from BSE-challenged sheep have been done, mostly with whole blood. Sheep have complex blood groups and only simple cross-matching can be done by mixing recipient serum and donor erythrocytes and vice versa. Therefore single transfusions only were made between sedated cross-matched animals to minimise the risk of severe reactions. Negative controls were MAFF/SF sheep transfused with blood from uninfected UK Cheviot sheep. As a positive control, MAFF/SF sheep were intravenously injected with homogenised BSE-affected cattle brain.
We have seen BSE clinical signs and pathological changes in one recipient of blood from a BSE-infected animal, and we regard this finding as sufficiently important to report now rather than after the study is completed, several years hence. The blood donation resulting in transmission of BSE to the recipient was 400 mL of whole blood taken from a healthy sheep 318 days after oral challenge with BSE. BSE subsequently developed in this donor animal 629 days after challenge, indicating that blood was taken roughly half way through the incubation period. 610 days after transfusion, the transfused sheep (D505) itself developed typical TSE signs: weight loss, moderate pruritus, trembling and licking of the lips, hind-limb ataxia, and proprioceptive abnormalities. This is the first experimental transmission of BSE from sheep to sheep and so we have nothing with which to compare this incubation period directly. In cross-species transmissions, bovine BSE injected intracerebrally gives incubation periods of about 450 days in these sheep,5 and the donor animal had an oral BSE incubation period of 629 days (see above). There are no similar data available on other infection routes. Immunocytochemistry with the antibody BG4 on tissues taken from sheep D505 showed widespread PrPSc deposition throughout the brain and periphery. Western blot analysis of brain tissue with the antibody 6H4 showed that the PrPSc protein had a glycoform pattern similar to that of experimental BSE in sheep and unlike that of UK natural scrapie (figure), indicating that the TSE signs resulted from transmission of the BSE agent. All other recipients of transfusions and positive and negative controls are alive and healthy. The positive controls, which involve a species barrier, are expected to have lengthy incubation periods. With one exception, all transfused animals are at earlier stages post-transfusion than was D505. The exception is a sheep which is healthy 635 days after transfusion with BSE-blood donated at less than 30% of the BSE incubation period of the donor sheep.
PrPSc (proteinase K treated) analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotted with 6H4, and visualised with a chemiluminescent substrate
All lanes are from the same gel with different exposure times. Size markers are to the left of lane 1. Lane1: natural scrapie sheep brain, 3 min exposure. Lane 2: as lane 1, 10 min exposure. Lane 3: sheep D505, blood-transfusion recipient, 10 min exposure. Lane 4: experimental BSE-affected sheep brain, 30 s exposure. Lane 5: as lane 4, 10 min exposure. Each lane loaded with amount of protein extracted from 0·1 g wet weight of brain, except lane 3 which was extracted from 0·2 g brain.
Although this result was in only one animal, it indicates that BSE can be transmitted between individuals of the same species by whole-blood transfusion. We have no data on blood fractions or on levels of infectivity in blood of preclinical vCJD cases, but whole blood is not now used in UK transfusions. The presence of BSE infectivity in sheep blood at an early stage in the incubation period suggests that it should be possible to identify which cells are infected, to test the effectiveness of leucodepletion, and to develop a diagnostic test based on a blood sample.
We thank Karen Brown, Moira Bruce, Calum McKenzie, David Parnham, Diane Ritchie, and the Scottish Blood Transfusion Service. The project is funded by the Department of Health.
1 Bruce ME, Will RG, Ironside JW, et al. Transmissions to mice indicate that 'new variant' CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature 1997; 389: 488-501 [PubMed].
2 Schmerr MJ, Jenny A, Cutlip RC. Use of capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to detect the prion protein extracted from scrapie-infected sheep. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 1997; 697: 223-29 [PubMed].
3 Foster JD, Bruce M, McConnell I, Chree A, Fraser H. Detection of BSE infectivity in brain and spleen of experimentally infected sheep. Vet Rec 1996; 138: 546-48 [PubMed].
4 Hill AF, Zeidler M, Ironside J, Collinge J. Diagnosis of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by tonsil biopsy. Lancet 1997; 349: 99-100.
5 Goldmann W, Hunter N, Smith G, Foster J, Hope J. PrP genotype and agent effects in scrapie: change in allelic interaction with different isolates of agent in sheep, a natural host of scrapie. J Gen Virol 1994; 75: 989-95 [PubMed].
Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, UK (F Houston PhD, CJ Bostock PhD); and Institute for Animal Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, Edinburgh, EH9 3JF, UK (N Hunter PhD, JD Foster BSc, Angela Chong BSc)
Correspondence to: Dr N Hunter
Commentary Volume 356, Number 9234 16 September 2000
BSE and transmission through blood
Lancet 2000; 356: 955 - 956 Download PDF (55 Kb) Wether the outbreak of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the UK will ultimately affect hundreds, or tens of thousands of people, cannot yet be predicted.1 If large numbers of apparently healthy people are now silently incubating infections with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the implications for public health include the possiblity that blood from such individuals may be infectious. Established facts about infectivity in the blood of human beings and animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are as follows:2-4
Blood, especially the buffy-coat component, from animals experimentally infected with scrapie or CJD and from either a clinical or preclinical incubation phase, is consistently infectious when bioassayed by intracerebral or intraperitoneal inoculation into the same species;
In naturally infected animals (sheep and goats with scrapie, mink with transmissible mink encephalopathy, and cows with BSE), all attempts to transmit disease through the inoculation of blood have failed;
Blood from four of 37 human beings with clinically evident sporadic CJD has been reported to transmit the disease after intracerebral inoculation into guineapigs, mice, or hamsters. But each success has been questioned on technical grounds and has not been reproducible; and
Epidemiological data have not revealed a single case of CJD that could be attributed to the administration of blood or blood products among patients with CJD, or among patients with haemophilia and other congenital clotting or immune deficiencies who receive repeated doses of plasma concentrates.
No comparable information about vCJD is available. However, since lymphoreticular organs, such as tonsils have been shown to contain the prion protein (which is an excellent index of infectivity), whereas it is not detectable in patients with sporadic CJD, there is some reason to worry that blood from individuals incubating vCJD might be infectious.5 Data from studies into the ability of blood from experimentally infected rodents and primates with vCJD to transmit the disease will not be available for months or years.
In this issue of The Lancet, F Houston and co-workers report convincing evidence that blood from a seemingly healthy sheep incubating BSE (infected by the oral route with brain from a diseased cow) was able to cause the disease when transfused into another sheep. This observation is entirely consistent with past experience in experimentally infected rodents. It extends current knowledge about blood infectivity in experimental models to a host/TSE strain pair that is closer to the human vCJD situation than the earlier rodent studies. It is also the first successful transfusion of BSE from blood taken during the all-important incubation period of infection. This result is part of a larger study (n=19) that includes both positive and negative control animals, all still healthy and in various early stages of the incubation period.
Is it appropriate to publish an experimental result from a single animal in a study that is not far enough along even to have validated its positive controls? Especially a result that does not in any fundamental way change our current thinking about BSE and vCJD and which would not seem to have any practical consequences for public health? The UK National Blood Transfusion Service has already implemented leucodepletion of donated blood, and imports all plasma and plasma derivatives from BSE-free countries. No further measures would seem possible--short of a draconian decision to shut down the whole UK blood-donor system. What, therefore, is the rationale for this publishing urgency? The answer, evidently, is a perceived need to "defuse", by an immediate and accurate scientific report, public reaction to possibly inaccurate media accounts. The full study, when it appears, will be an important addition to our knowledge of TSEs, but science should not be driven to what in certain medical quarters might be termed a premature emission through fear of media misrepresentation.
Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
1 Ghani AC, Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM. Predicted vCJD mortality in Great Britain. Nature 2000; 406: 583-84 [PubMed].
2 Brown P. Can Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease be transmitted by transfusion? Curr Opin Hematol 1995; 2: 472-77 [PubMed].
3 Brown P, Cervenáková L, McShane LM, Barber P, Rubenstein R, Drohan WN. Further studies of blood infectivity in an experimental model of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, with an explanation of why blood components do not transmit Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Transfusion 1999; 39: 1169-78 [PubMed].
4 Rohwer RG. Titer, distribution, and transmissibility of blood-borne TSE infectivity. Presented at Cambridge Healthtech Institute 6th Annual Meeting "Blood Product Safety: TSE, Perception versus Reality", MacLean, VA, USA, Feb 13-15, 2000.
5 Hill AF, Butterworth RJ, Joiner S, et al. Investigation of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human prion diseases with tonsil biopsy samples. Lancet 1999; 353: 183-89.
Subject: RESEARCH & FUNDING FOR HUMAN/ANIMAL TSE'S... [part 1]
Date: Thu, 06 Jul 2000 12:36:36 -0700 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." <email@example.com>
To: Dan.Glickman@usda.gov, President@whitehouse.gov, Vice.President@whitehouse.gov, First.Lady@whitehouse.gov, Mrs.Gore@whitehouse.gov
Dear Mr. Glickman,
could you please tell me, why certain people in your department (cutlipp, caughey, o'rourke, just to name a few) would be willing to hinder the research of certain people?
this is well known publicly (around the globe), that this is what these people are doing, so why do _you_ allow this?
why would your people NOT want a BSE test in the U.S.?
why slow this research down?
(i know the answer to that, but would like to hear it from you, but really don't expect a reply. hell, i cannot even get a reply from my state reps. on this issue, but i promise you, i am going to light a fire, that will be seen around the globe).
why is it, all this money can go for all sorts of other things, but very very little for research of human/animal TSE's?
it's not going away, it's only going to spread...
kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary SR.
THIS IS A WORLD PROBLEM...TSS
DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES
DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES 
LOUPING-ILL VACCINE SCRAPIE BLUNDER
Manuelidis EE, Kim JH, Mericangas JR, Manuelidis L. Transmission to animals of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from human blood. Lancet 1985;2:896-7.
Tateishi J. Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from human blood and urine into mice. Lancet 1985;2:1074. "
The Lancet, November 9, 1985
Sir,--Professor Manuelidis and his colleagues (Oct 19, p896) report transmission to animals of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from the buffy coat from two patients. We also transmitted the disease from whole blood samples of a patient (and of mice) infected with CJD.1 Brain, Cornea, and urine from this patient were also infectious, and the clinicopathological findings2 are summarised as follows.
A 70-year-old man was noted to have a slowing of speech and writing and some disorientation, all of which progressed rapidly. Decorticate rigidity, forced grasping, positive snout reflex, and myoclonus appeared within 2 months. Electroencephalogram revealed typical periodic synchronous discharge, and he died of pneumonia and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, about 3 months after onset of the symptoms. The Brain weighed 1290g and showed severe histological changes diagnostic of CJD, including spongiform change, loss of nerve cells, and diffuse proliferation of astrocytes. There were no inflammatory cells, microglia, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques, although virus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy.
Results of innoculation in Mice
Inocula NO* Incubation period (days)+ Brain 7/10 (4) 789 (+ or - 112) Cornea 1/6 (0) 1037 Blood 2/13 (0) 1080 (+ or - 69) Urine 5/10 (1) 880 (+ or - 55) CSF 0/10
* Number of mice with CJD change/number examined histologically. Number with amyloid plaques shown in parentheses.
+ means + or - SD
Samples were taken aseptically at necropsy. 10% crude homogenates of brain and cornea in saline, whole blood (after crushing a clot), and untreated CSF and urine were innoculated intracerebrally into CF1 strain mice (20 ul per animal). Some mice showed emaciation, bradykinesia, rigidity of the body and tail, and sometimes tremor after long incubation periods. Tissues obtained after the animal died (or was killed) were studied histologically (table). Animals infected by various inocula showed common pathological changes, consisting of severe spongiform changes, glial proliferation, and a moderate loss of nerve cells. A few mice inoculated with brain tissue or urine had the same amyloid plaques found in patients and animals with CJD.3
In our long-term experiments, inoculating materials taken from twenty patients with CJD or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker's disease (GSS) into rodents, positive results were obtained in seventeen cases, including this patient. Brain tissue transmitted the disease most frequently within the shortes incubation period, except for one case where the lymph node was the most infectious. Transmission through the cornea has been noted in man4 and in guineapigs.5 Whole blood samples taken from three patients were inoculated and a positive transmission occured only in the case recorded here. Mouse-to-mouse transmission through blood inoculation was successful after a mean incubation period of 365 days.1 Transmission through urine was positive in this patient only, and negative in one other patient and in many infected animals. Transmission through the CSF from eight patients was negative, yet transmission via the CSF of infected rats was positive.1
As viraemia has been proved in guineapigs,6 mice,1,7 and lately in patients with CJD, blood for transfusion or blood products for medical use must be tested for unconventional pathogens. For this purpose, we inoculated blood products inot rodents.8 The CJD pathogen was not found in the products examined. However, this approach takes too long to be of practical value. More efficient methods must be developed to detect pathogens and to eliminate them from blood. One proposal9 is to apply membrane filtration to the pruification protocol of human growth hormone suspected of being contaminated with CJD. Similar methods are needed for blood contamination.
Department of Neuropathology, Neurological Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka812, Japan
1. Tateishi J, Sato Y, Kaga M. Doi H, Ohta M. Experimental transmission of human subacute spongiform encephalopathy to small rodents 1: Clinical and histological observations. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1980; 51: 127.
2. Shibayama Y, Sakaguchi Y, Nakata K, et al, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with demonstration of virus-like particles. Acta pathol Jpn 1982;32: 695.
3. Tateishi J, Nagara H, Hikita K, Sato Y. Amyloid plaques in the brains of mice with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol 1984; 15: 278.
4. Duffy P, Wolf J, Colings G, DeVoe AG, Streeten B, Cowen D. Possible person-to-person transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 692.
5. Manuelidis EE, Angelo JN, Gorgacz EJ, Kim JH, Manuelidis L. Experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmitted via the eye with infected cornea. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 1334.
6. Manuelidis EE, Gorgacz EJ, Manuelidis L. Viremia in experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Science 1978: 200: 1069.
7. Kuroda Y, Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Gajdusek DC. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in mice. Persistent viremiam and preferential replication of virus in low-density lymphocytes. Infect Immun 1983; 41: 154.
8. Tateishi J, Tsuji S. Unconventional pathogens causing spongiform encephalopathis absent in blood products. J Med Virol 1985; 15: 11.
9. Tateishi J, Kitamoto T, Hiratani H. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease pathogen in growth hormone preparations is eliminatable. Lancet (in press).
Is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Transmitted in Blood? Maura N. Ricketts,* Neil R. Cashman,† Elizabeth E. Stratton,* Susie ElSaadany* *Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; and †Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Canada
"Four Australians have been reported with CJD following transfusion (49). The patients had cerebellar signs; however, no other evidence of iatrogenic cause was described (50). The source of blood transfusions was undocumented. Genetic testing results were not provided; it is uncertain if cases were of the familial type, and no other information on alternative iatrogenic sources was provided.
In Canada, an albumin recipient died of neuropathologically confirmed CJD after receiving albumin from a pool containing blood from a person who died of neuropathologically confirmed CJD (D.G. Patry, pers. comm.). Eight months separated the receipt of albumin and development of symptoms, a much shorter period by a factor of three than seen in any other putative iatrogenic case, which makes iatrogenic transmission unlikely. A complete investigation is under way. "
", , , CJD may be uniformly underdiagnosed in older age groups; because of nv-CJD there will likely be increased attention to differential diagnoses among elderly persons dying of rapidly progressing dementing illnesses. We do not suggest that all sporadic cases are due to external exposure such as blood, but rather we draw attention to an important epidemiologic characteristic of CJD that is not consistent with an entirely stochastic or age-related event.
AUSTRALIA - ANOTHER sCJD VICTIM
Sent: Saturday, October 21, 2006 3:00 PM
Subject: australia another CJD victim - blood donor -
A MELBOURNE grandmother who died this week from suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was a blood donor for 25 years.
Valerie Powell, 68, died on Tuesday. Her husband Ron, 70, said his wife was a regular blood donor until a year ago.
But he said doctors had told him the type of CJD his wife had could not be transmitted by blood or blood products.
The Australian Red Cross said there had never been a reported case of classical CJD being passed from a blood donor anywhere in the world.
CJD expert Prof Colin Masters, head of the Department of Pathology at Melbourne University, said Victorians who may have received blood from Mrs Powell should not be alarmed because there was no evidence classical CJD was passed through the blood.
But he said in the past year there had been three cases, all in Britain, of variant CJD -- more widely known as mad cow's disease -- passed from blood donors.
Mr Powell said his wife went to her GP in July because she was feeling unwell.
"He diagnosed depression and put her on medication," he said. "It didn't help. Valerie's symptoms became worse."
Mrs Powell's family was told a test of her spinal fluid showed she "probably" had sporadic CJD, which makes up 90 per cent of all classical CJD cases.
It was not known how she developed the rare, but fatal, brain disease. Only a biopsy will confirm suspicions that Mrs Powell died from CJD.
Prof Masters said there was no way of screening blood donors. About 20 Australians a year die from classical CJD.
THERE are support groups for families of victims of CJD. Contact Suzanne Solvyns 1800 052 466, Carol Wilson 1800 181 683 or Mandy Newton 1800 884 897.
Tuesday, August 11, 2009
Characteristics of Established and Proposed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Variants